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The Prince: It is fun because it is true hahhaha
Aysia Santana: 2. If its about gender equality, why do you only talk about women and womens rights?
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Although many optical fibre applications are based on their capacity to transmit optical signals with low losses, it can also be desirable for the optical fibre to be strongly affected by a certain physical parameter in the environment. In this way, it can be used as a sensor this parameter. There are many strong arguments for the use of POFs as sensors. In addition to being easy to handle and low cost, they demonstrate advantages common to all multimode optical fibres.
These specifically include flexibility, small size, good electromagnetic compatibility behaviour, and in general, the possibility of measuring any phenomenon without physically interacting Pof spain search it.
In this paper, a sensor based on POF is designed and analysed with the aim of measuring the volume and turbidity of a
Pof spain search viscosity fluid, in this case water, as it passes Pof spain search a pipe. A comparative study with a commercial sensor is provided to validate the proven measurement.
Likewise, turbidity is measured using different Pof spain search dyes. Finally, this paper will present the most significant results and conclusions from all the tests which are carried out. Historically, the idea of optical communications has been around for more than a century,
Pof spain search it has only been possible to put the idea into practice in the last few decades.
In the first known optical application, Alexander Graham Bell obtained a patent for his elemental photophone in However, like many other ideas, this was ahead of its time and the technology to develop it was not in Pof spain search. In the field of communications, there were two important developments that represented great advances in the field. The first occurred in with the invention of the laser.
The second development involved obtaining a very pure glass fibre with very low attenuation. Over the past 30 years a new type of optical fibre has been researched, namely the plastic optical fibre POF. Since Koike developed graded-index plastic optical fibres inlater obtaining low attenuation perfluorinated fibres in [ 1 ], plastic optical fibres have received a lot of interest, and a great number of applications is expected to developed over the next few years.
Some of the most important advantages of an optical fibre are: In the field of sensors, numerous types of products based on POFs have been commercialized [ 23 ], for example scanning heads, shape-defect detectors used in bottling plants, and liquid level In addition, by using conventional POFs, it is possible to measure parameters such as nuclear radiation, humidity, temperature, concentrations, displacements, toxicity and so on [ 4 - 6 ].
Let us first review the basic concepts involved in measuring flow rate and turbidity. Flow rate is defined as
Pof spain search volume of fluid per unit that passes through a pipe, and it can be calculated as the product of the fluid speed and the cross-section of the pipe.
The flow rate measurements can be taken using a variety of traditional technologies:. Regarding turbidity, the most commonly used unit is the NTU, or nephelometric turbidity unit, which is calibrated on the basis of health considerations [ 7 ]. Water for human consumption should have turbidity below 5 NTU for aesthetic reasons.
Several methods may be used to measure water turbidity, but only two of them, nephelometry and turbidimetry, form the basis of present standard methods [ 8 ]. Historically, turbidity has been measured in drinking water using the Jackson candle turbidimeter. This is a visual method in which the sample is poured into a calibrated tube and the turbidity is read when the flame of a candle under the bottom of the tube disappears from Pof spain search. A depth of A Jackson candle turbidimeter can only be applied to turbidities greater than 25 JTU, so it is not suitable for monitoring drinking water.
Improved instruments that use electrical light sources and mirror optics, such as the Patterson turbidimeter, can measure lower values. The current method of choice for measuring turbidity is the nephelometric method [ 10 ]. It will be necessary to calibrate the measured Pof spain search because of differences in the physical design of turbidimeters.
Parameters such as the light source, sample geometry or detector geometry are therefore defined for Pof spain search purposes. This paper presents a sensor to measure flow rate and turbidity. This sensor is based on using plastic optical fibre and making the most of its excellent properties. The operating principle is based on a rotating propeller placed in a pipe, perpendicular to liquid movement. When the liquid crosses the blades it creates rotation power that turns the rotor and its speed is directly proportional to the flow.
An optical transducer using plastic optical fibre generates a pulse train, as a function of the rotor speed. The number of pulses per time unit is a function of the flow rate.
On the other hand, the
Pof spain search of light that crosses the pipe is sensitive to its transmission medium. This means that the higher the degree of fluid turbidity, the lower the amplitude of the received signal, meaning that the height of the pulses is a function of the fluid's turbidity. A general, commercially sold, rotating propeller was used as the mechanical part to produce this sensor.
Using plastic optical fibre to send and receive the optical signals generated by the rotating propeller as it turns helps us to classify this type of sensor as a sensor based on Pof spain search optical fibre. Measurement accuracy is based on achieving a steady and undisturbed flow with a fully developed turbulent flow profile. There are two basic types of flow profile: Turbulent flow exists when the speed of the fluid Pof spain search the pipe is practically constant across its entire width.
This is typical of low viscosity fluids; like water, flowing at high velocity. Laminar flow exists
Pof spain search the speed of the fluid in the centre of the pipe is greater than its speed at the outer edge, near the pipe wall. This is typical of high viscosity fluids Pof spain search at low velocity. Because the meter commonly only measures the flow near the pipe wall particularly in larger pipe sizesa constant velocity across the flow stream is required [ 11 - 12 ].
Flow conditions with a Reynolds Number greater than 4, represent a fully developed turbulent flow. A Reynolds Number under 2, is laminar flow. The meter requires a Reynolds number greater than 4, to maintain accuracy. The coupling between two fibres is an important factor to take into consideration. The ratio between both powers is:. The loss R due to Fresnel's reflections must also not be forgotten.
This phenomenon is due to the reflection when an optical radiation passes from Pof spain search medium to another with a different refractive index. Fresnel's reflections are given by:. In this case, loss depends on 1-R 2 because Fresnel's reflections happen twice [ 15 ]. The mechanical part
Pof spain search composed of a two-blade rotating propeller turning around its axis as the fluid passes through the pipe, as shown in Figure 2.
This rotation affects light coupling from one POF to another when both are placed in line a short distance apart, with the propeller in between. This set-up generates an optical pulse train when the relative position of the propeller changes in relation to the emitted light beam. This pulse train is then sent to an optoelectronic system by means of the second POF. This converts the optical signal into electrical information.
The frequency of the generated pulse train is intrinsically related to the speed of the fluid through the pipe. This speed multiplied by the pipe section will give us the volume of fluid per unit time, or flow rate. On the other hand, the amplitude of the pulse train is a function of the turbidity of the fluid. Since the system Pof spain search both flow rate and turbidity, it was necessary to design two independent circuits.
The first measures the flow rate, testing the frequency of the generated pulse train. This circuit is composed of a Contrinex LFK photoelectric proximity switch, and a voltage amplifier. The photoelectric proximity switch device includes a Schmitt Trigger circuit providing a regular
Pof spain search train which is suitable to obtain the flow rate measurement, although the pulse amplitude is constant and not valid to measure turbidity.
The second circuit measures turbidity, checking the amplitude of the signal. A subsequent amplifier is used to condition this signal by isolating the circuit output. Moreover, a variable voltage is set up to adjust output values according to the display values required. Pof spain search sensor propeller is installed in the pipe where the fluid is circulating.
When the two blades rotate, they interrupt the light path, and intermittent pulses are generated. The rotation speed depends on the flow rate. A trigger control circuit has been designed to measure the width of all pulses as
Pof spain search as possible, V i1. This allows us to obtain pulses with a constant width, which will be connected to a measuring Pof spain search, as shown in Figure 3.
After obtaining this constant width
Pof spain search train, a simple RC circuit is integrated and a continuous voltage value is achieved, which shows the frequency behaviour of the signal in real time. This voltage is given by:. Using the theory of dimensionless parameters, it can be proved that a linear relationship exists between the flow rate through the pipe and the angular speed of the propeller, as follows:. Finally, the signal is conditioned by setting up an adjustable gain voltage amplifier circuit using a potentiometer, with the aim of calibrating the Vo signal to the correspondent Q value, after having been isolated from the rest of circuit.
The mechanical assembly can be seen in Figure 4. A channel management circuit has been designed to avoid using two displays to visualise two different kinds Pof spain search information. Using a switch, one kind of information or another can be displayed. An analogue multiplexer has been used for this design. The measurement outputs for turbidity and flow rate are connected to the management circuit.
A switch is connected to one RS flip-flop and, after that, its output is connected to a J-K latch, and this generates a control By means of this generated control signal, the displayed signal is connected to the LCD display circuit, as shown below.
The complete block diagram and the unit control for the sensor appear in Figure
Pof spain search. The results obtained will be classified into two groups: Several tests have been run with the aim of obtaining a comparative study for the designed system and the GPI commercial flowmeter.
Different shape signals can be seen in Figures 6-a, 6-b, 6-c, 6-d and 6-ecorresponding to specific tests. The generated pulse train and the frequency value appear in each graph. The results of the comparative study between a commercial flowmeter and the POF-based system designed are shown in Table 1. These measurements were taken every minute and for a total time of minutes. Furthermore, the tests have been carried out with five different flow rates and, the flow rate columns show the different measurements obtained with the commercial flowmeter and the designed system.
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